on a linux system what is the name of the directory

on a linux system what is the name of the directory

When you’re coming from Home windows, the Linux file system construction can appear significantly alien. The C: drive and drive letters are gone, changed by a / and cryptic-sounding directories, most of which have three letter names.

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The Filesystem Hierarchy Commonplace (FHS) defines the construction of file methods on Linux and different UNIX-like working methods. Nevertheless, Linux file methods additionally include some directories that aren’t but outlined by the usual.

/ — The Root Listing

All the pieces in your Linux system is situated underneath the / listing, often called the foundation listing. You’ll be able to consider the / listing as being just like the C: listing on Home windows — however this isn’t strictly true, as Linux doesn’t have drive letters. Whereas one other partition could be situated at D: on Home windows, this different partition would seem in one other folder underneath / on Linux.

/bin — Important Consumer Binaries

The /bin listing incorporates the important consumer binaries (packages) that have to be current when the system is mounted in single-user mode. Purposes akin to Firefox are saved in /usr/bin, whereas essential system packages and utilities such because the bash shell are situated in /bin. The /usr listing could also be saved on one other partition — inserting these recordsdata within the /bin listing ensures the system may have these essential utilities even when no different file methods are mounted. The /sbin listing is analogous — it incorporates important system administration binaries.

/boot — Static Boot Recordsdata

The /boot listing incorporates the recordsdata wanted as well the system — for instance, the GRUB boot loader’s recordsdata and your Linux kernels are saved right here. The boot loader’s configuration recordsdata aren’t situated right here, although — they’re in /and many others with the opposite configuration recordsdata.

/cdrom — Historic Mount Level for CD-ROMs

The /cdrom listing isn’t a part of the FHS commonplace, however you’ll nonetheless discover it on Ubuntu and different working methods. It’s a short lived location for CD-ROMs inserted within the system. Nevertheless, the usual location for momentary media is contained in the /media listing.

/dev — System Recordsdata

Linux exposes gadgets as recordsdata, and the /dev listing incorporates a lot of particular recordsdata that characterize gadgets. These should not precise recordsdata as we all know them, however they seem as recordsdata — for instance, /dev/sda represents the primary SATA drive within the system. When you needed to partition it, you can begin a partition editor and inform it to edit /dev/sda.

This listing additionally incorporates pseudo-devices, that are digital gadgets that don’t truly correspond to {hardware}. For instance, /dev/random produces random numbers. /dev/null is a particular machine that produces no output and mechanically discards all enter — while you pipe the output of a command to /dev/null, you discard it.

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/and many others — Configuration Recordsdata

The /and many others listing incorporates configuration recordsdata, which might usually be edited by hand in a textual content editor. Be aware that the /and many others/ listing incorporates system-wide configuration recordsdata — user-specific configuration recordsdata are situated in every consumer’s house listing.

/house — House Folders

The /house listing incorporates a house folder for every consumer. For instance, in case your consumer title is bob, you could have a house folder situated at /house/bob. This house folder incorporates the consumer’s knowledge recordsdata and user-specific configuration recordsdata. Every consumer solely has write entry to their very own house folder and should get hold of elevated permissions (grow to be the foundation consumer) to change different recordsdata on the system.

/lib — Important Shared Libraries

The /lib listing incorporates libraries wanted by the important binaries within the /bin and /sbin folder. Libraries wanted by the binaries within the /usr/bin folder are situated in /usr/lib.

/misplaced+discovered — Recovered Recordsdata

Every Linux file system has a misplaced+discovered listing. If the file system crashes, a file system verify will likely be carried out at subsequent boot. Any corrupted recordsdata discovered will likely be positioned within the misplaced+discovered listing, so you’ll be able to try to get well as a lot knowledge as doable.

/media — Detachable Media

The /media listing incorporates subdirectories the place detachable media gadgets inserted into the pc are mounted. For instance, while you insert a CD into your Linux system, a listing will mechanically be created contained in the /media listing. You’ll be able to entry the contents of the CD inside this listing.

/mnt — Momentary Mount Factors

Traditionally talking, the /mnt listing is the place system directors mounted momentary file methods whereas utilizing them. For instance, for those who’re mounting a Home windows partition to carry out some file restoration operations, you may mount it at /mnt/home windows. Nevertheless, you’ll be able to mount different file methods anyplace on the system.

/decide — Non-compulsory Packages

The /decide listing incorporates subdirectories for non-obligatory software program packages. It’s generally utilized by proprietary software program that doesn’t obey the usual file system hierarchy — for instance, a proprietary program may dump its recordsdata in /decide/software while you set up it.

/proc — Kernel & Course of Recordsdata

The /proc listing just like the /dev listing as a result of it doesn’t include commonplace recordsdata. It incorporates particular recordsdata that characterize system and course of info.

/root — Root House Listing

The /root listing is the house listing of the foundation consumer. As a substitute of being situated at /house/root, it’s situated at /root. That is distinct from /, which is the system root listing.

/run — Software State Recordsdata

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The /run listing is pretty new, and offers purposes an ordinary place to retailer transient recordsdata they require like sockets and course of IDs. These recordsdata can’t be saved in /tmp as a result of recordsdata in /tmp could also be deleted.

/sbin — System Administration Binaries

The /sbin listing is just like the /bin listing. It incorporates important binaries which are usually meant to be run by the foundation consumer for system administration.

/selinux — SELinux Digital File System

In case your Linux distribution makes use of SELinux for safety (Fedora and Pink Hat, for instance), the /selinux listing incorporates particular recordsdata utilized by SELinux. It’s just like /proc. Ubuntu doesn’t use SELinux, so the presence of this folder on Ubuntu seems to be a bug.

/srv — Service Knowledge

The /srv listing incorporates “knowledge for companies offered by the system.” When you have been utilizing the Apache HTTP server to serve a web site, you’d possible retailer your web site’s recordsdata in a listing contained in the /srv listing.

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/tmp — Momentary Recordsdata

Purposes retailer momentary recordsdata within the /tmp listing. These recordsdata are usually deleted at any time when your system is restarted and could also be deleted at any time by utilities akin to tmpwatch.

/usr — Consumer Binaries & Learn-Solely Knowledge

The /usr listing incorporates purposes and recordsdata utilized by customers, versus purposes and recordsdata utilized by the system. For instance, non-essential purposes are situated contained in the /usr/bin listing as a substitute of the /bin listing and non-essential system administration binaries are situated within the /usr/sbin listing as a substitute of the /sbin listing. Libraries for every are situated contained in the /usr/lib listing. The /usr listing additionally incorporates different directories — for instance, architecture-independent recordsdata like graphics are situated in /usr/share.

The /usr/native listing is the place regionally compiled purposes set up to by default — this prevents them from mucking up the remainder of the system.

/var — Variable Knowledge Recordsdata

The /var listing is the writable counterpart to the /usr listing, which have to be read-only in regular operation. Log recordsdata and every thing else that may usually be written to /usr throughout regular operation are written to the /var listing. For instance, you’ll discover log recordsdata in /var/log.

For extra detailed technical details about the Linux file system hierarchy, seek the advice of the Filesystem Hierarchy Commonplace documentation.

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