what is a key difference in gene expression between eukaryotic and

what is a key difference in gene expression between eukaryotic and

Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic Gene Expression

To know how gene expression is regulated, we should first perceive how a gene codes for a useful protein in a cell. The method happens in each prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, simply in barely totally different manners.

Prokaryotic organisms are single-celled organisms that lack an outlined nucleus; subsequently, their DNA floats freely throughout the cell cytoplasm. To synthesize a protein, the processes of transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to protein) happen virtually concurrently. When the ensuing protein is now not wanted, transcription stops. Thus, the regulation of transcription is the first methodology to regulate what kind of protein and the way a lot of every protein is expressed in a prokaryotic cell. All the subsequent steps happen mechanically. When extra protein is required, extra transcription happens. Due to this fact, in prokaryotic cells, the management of gene expression is usually on the transcriptional degree.

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Eukaryotic cells, in distinction, have intracellular organelles that add to their complexity. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is contained contained in the cell’s nucleus the place it’s transcribed into RNA. The newly-synthesized RNA is then transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm the place ribosomes translate the RNA into protein. The processes of transcription and translation are bodily separated by the nuclear membrane; transcription happens solely throughout the nucleus, and translation happens solely outdoors the nucleus throughout the cytoplasm. The regulation of gene expression can happen in any respect levels of the method. Regulation could happen when the DNA is uncoiled and loosened from nucleosomes to bind transcription components (epigenetics), when the RNA is transcribed (transcriptional degree), when the RNA is processed and exported to the cytoplasm after it’s transcribed (post-transcriptional degree), when the RNA is translated into protein (translational degree), or after the protein has been made (post-translational degree).

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Determine (PageIndex{1}): Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Gene Expression: Prokaryotic transcription and translation happen concurrently within the cytoplasm, and regulation happens on the transcriptional degree. Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated throughout transcription and RNA processing, which happen within the nucleus, and through protein translation, which takes place within the cytoplasm. Additional regulation could happen by means of post-translational modifications of proteins.

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