Introduction to Ceramic Tile Ceramic tile is usually used as a “catch-all” time period for quite a lot of wall and ground tiles. There are a selection of supplies used to make tile, every with their very own distinctive traits and enchantment.
What are ceramic tiles? Ceramic tiles are tiles produced from mixtures of clay, sand and different pure supplies, which have been formed and fired at a excessive temperature. This firing course of hardens the clay to a sturdy floor.
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As soon as fired, the hardened clay physique, additionally referred to as a bisque, could also be left untreated or glazed to use colours and designs and supply added put on and scratch resistance.
Unglazed tiles are most well-liked for industrial settings as a result of the colour runs all through the physique of the tile and due to this fact they don’t present put on as readily as a glazed tile.
Nonetheless, these tiles require sealing to stop staining. Unglazed tiles are slip and put on resistant, possess a clean, matte floor and are usually thicker and denser than glazed tiles, and are due to this fact extra appropriate for prime site visitors and industrial purposes.
Glazed tiles are made in the identical method as unglazed tiles however have an extra glaze layer utilized to the tile’s floor that gives the tile with its shade and stage of shine or gloss, although the glaze could be clear to permit the pure shade of the clay to return by way of. The glaze is a tough, non-porous floor that improves the tile’s resistance to water and marking.
The place Tile is Used The commonest residential makes use of for tiles are as inside flooring, partitions or counter tops. Ground tiles could also be glazed or unglazed and are usually thicker and extra sturdy than wall tile in an effort to face up to foot site visitors. Ground tiles usually have a extra textured floor to enhance slip resistance.
As a basic rule, ground tile could be placed on a wall or countertop, however wall tile needs to be used solely on partitions and counter tops. Most wall tile is glazed with a high-gloss or semi-gloss floor. This glazed, shiny floor has a really low slip resistance, and may be very slick when moist, including to its lack of suitability as ground tile.
Porcelain and stone tile for out of doors walkways and patios can also be a preferred use of tile. Normal ceramic tile shouldn’t be really useful for out of doors use as a result of its water absorption price is simply too excessive.
Options of Tile The number of tile colours, shapes, and sizes creates limitless design prospects and the flexibility of tile permits it for use on flooring, partitions, counter tops, fireplaces—even out of doors purposes. Tile is water and warmth resistant making it nice for kitchens and different moist areas of the house.
Tile is sturdy, fade and stain resistant (glazed tile or unglazed when correctly sealed), and simple to keep up. Tile is taken into account a everlasting ground as a result of correctly put in tile ought to final for the lifetime of your buyer’s dwelling.
What are porcelain tiles? All porcelain tiles are ceramic tile, nonetheless not all ceramic tiles are porcelain. Particularly, porcelain tiles are ceramic tiles with a water absorption score of lower than 0.5%. That is why porcelain tiles can be utilized outside in exterior settings, in addition to indoors; their low water absorption score retains them secure throughout freeze-thaw cycles.
Porcelain tiles are produced from nice clays, quartz, and feldspar and fired at a better temperature, leading to a denser and extra water-resistant tile than normal ceramic tile. It is very important word that some producer’s now produce some high-density ceramic tiles that may be greater in density and power than some porcelain tile.
Whereas porcelain’s development has a sturdiness profit, it might make the tile harder to chop and cling to vertical surfaces.
Sorts of Porcelain Tile
Glazed Porcelain Glazed porcelain tiles are just like glazed ceramic tiles, in that they’ve a layer of liquid glass-like end, which is then baked into the floor of the clay. The glaze could also be clear or a distinct shade than the tile and supplies it with improved moisture and stain resistance. If the glaze is a distinct shade than the bisque, chipping can be extra noticeable than with unglazed tiles.
Pure or Unglazed Porcelain Pure porcelain tiles, additionally referred to as through-body porcelain tiles, haven’t been glazed nor polished and are the identical shade on the highest and during the tile. Unglazed through-body porcelain tiles do provide benefits over glazed tiles, together with improved efficiency and put on resistance.
The low absorption score of porcelain tile has nothing to do with the facial floor being stain resistant. Except the tile producer has handled the porcelain to shut up the floor (micro) pores, a sealer will should be utilized to maintain these tiles from staining.
Polished Porcelain Polished porcelains are pure porcelains with a cultured floor. The polished floor is not a glaze, however truly comes from inside the stone, just like the method used to shine granite or marble.
The sprucing course of on a porcelain tile truly opens up the pores of the tile and requires the tile to be sealed earlier than grouting in an effort to improve resistance to stains and make the tiles simpler to keep up
Ceramic vs. Porcelain Tile Reply to the client’s concern within the textual content field under. “I’m not positive what sort of tile I want for my kitchen. What’s the distinction between ceramic and porcelain tile?”
At one time, the distinction between ceramic and porcelain tile was extra pronounced. In the present day, with the recognition of glazed porcelain and new high-density ceramic tiles with sturdiness and power rankings equal to most porcelain tiles, there’s little distinction for many residential utility between these two forms of tile.
Stone Tile Pure stone may be very sturdy even in heavy site visitors circumstances and most stone tile is appropriate for each indoor and out of doors use. All pure stone is porous to some extent and will take in stains. Due to this fact, it is very important advocate a sealant to stop stains from seeping into the pores of the stone.
The genuine enchantment of pure stone makes it extra fascinating to some prospects, although ceramic and porcelain tile can realistically replicate the look of many forms of stone.
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The commonest pure stone tiles used within the dwelling embody: marble, granite, travertine and slate. Every kind of stone has distinctive options that affect its usability, look, and efficiency.
Quarry Tile Quarry tile sometimes refers to any unglazed, machine-made tile. As with all unglazed tiles, quarry tiles require the applying of a sealer or coating to supply stain resistance.
These tiles are produced from a mix of clays, chipped stone, sand or concrete with added shade and are thick, sturdy, slip resistant, and have a excessive resistance to moisture and marking—making them good for heavy site visitors areas. Click on to view sub-categories of quarry tile.
Pavers The principle distinction between a paver and a quarry tile is that quarry tiles are “extruded” and lower to size on the finish of the extruding course of, whereas pavers are sometimes pressed to kind the specified form and measurement.
Terra Cotta Tiles Terra-cotta tiles are hand-made and unglazed. Most individuals use “terra-cotta” to consult with the colour of the tile—a heat, pure reddish-brown derived from the clay they’re produced from.
Machine made, terra-cotta tiles are a type of quarry tile which are sturdy and have a decrease moisture absorption price than hand-made terra-cotta tiles
Glass Tiles Glass tile is obtainable in all kinds of colours, patterns, textures, and sizes. These tiles could also be opaque, translucent, or iridescent. Glass tiles are generally used for bathtub and kitchen partitions, counter tops and flooring inserts, in addition to spa and pool areas.
In the present day, some glass tiles are produced from recycled supplies corresponding to previous bottles, damaged windshields and industrial scrap glass, which provides these tiles additional enchantment as a “inexperienced” product.
Metallic Tiles Quite a lot of metals can be utilized to create steel tiles, together with aluminum, copper, stainless-steel, brass, bronze, pewter and others. These tiles are most frequently used as wall tiles or backsplashes in kitchens or as accents on flooring and partitions so as to add a novel, customized look to any space of the house. Metallic tiles can be found in quite a lot of colours, textures and finishes. Shapes vary from ornamental dots, slender listellos, and mosaic tiles, to wall and ground tiles in normal sizes. Simply as with glass tiles, recyclable steel tiles have gained reputation due to their “inexperienced” story and optimistic contribution to the atmosphere
Tile Shapes & Sizes Tile whether or not ceramic, porcelain, stone, glass or steel is obtainable in a spread of sizes and shapes. This module will current a number of the most typical shapes, sizes and the standard makes use of for varied formed tile.
Discipline Tiles Discipline tiles consult with the tile overlaying a wall, countertop or ground. Usually these tiles are flat, single shade and require border or trim tile to complete the perimeters of the set up.
Discipline tiles are mostly sq. formed, however are additionally accessible in rectangle, octagonal, hexagonal in addition to customized shapes. These tiles can be found in a variety of sizes from 1-inch mosaics to 24-inches and bigger format tiles.
Mosaic Tile Mosaic tiles are small tile or bits of tile (typically lower than 3″x 3″) which are generally produced from porcelain, ceramic, coloured glass, pure stone and even pebbles. They’re accessible in quite a lot of shapes corresponding to spherical (dots) and hexagon.
Mosaic tiles are most frequently mounted on paper, mesh, or adhesive dot-mounted sheets to facilitate simpler dealing with and set up. Mosaic tile could also be utilized in a straight structure or separated and mixed with completely different colours to kind a floor design, ornamental inset or customized sample.
Trim Tiles Trim tiles are designed to complete off the uncooked or lower edges of area tiles notably on partitions or counter tops. These tiles are a required transition piece that gives safety to the uncooked edge—with out the trim the sector tile may simply be broken.
Trim tiles can be found in varied sizes and shapes in an effort to obtain the specified sanitary and architectural design for the set up. Many tile collections additionally produce varied coordinating trim tiles to mix in with area tiles so as make deciding on trim tiles and finalizing a tile set up simpler for the patron.
Trim Tiles There are two broad classes of trim tile: Floor and Radius trim.
Floor trim is utilized on to the wall or countertop floor and is usually the identical thickness because the tile.
Radius trim is curved trim tile designed to go over a deep setting mattress or a bit of tile.
Widespread shapes of each floor and radius trim embody: bullnose, cove, quarter-round, and V-cap.
Bullnose is essentially the most extensively used trim for wall installations. This tile resembles a daily area tile with one rounded edge to complete off the highest of a wall or the sting of a countertop.
Bullnose tile is typically known as a floor cap and can be utilized as an alternative to cove base.
A single bullnose has one rounded edge and can be utilized horizontally or vertically to complete off an space or flip route.
Nook bullnose (also called double bullnose or down angle): A ceramic ground tile trim that has two rounded completed edges on the tile for use to finish a nook.
Cove Tiles (additionally referred to as mud cap) Cove tiles have one edge with a¬ curved in, concave radius and are used when putting in wall tile to kind a junction between the wall and ground, or to kind an inside nook. These tiles are flared on the backside to make a clean transition from one floor to the subsequent.
(1) Stack-on Cove Base – This wall tile trim flares on the backside to segue easily to the ground. It has a flat edge on high and is used when tile can be put in above it on the wall.
(2) Sanitary Cove Base is a ground tile trim with a rounded completed high like a bullnose to cove up the physique of the tile.
Quarter Spherical (also called Bead) That is the trim piece used to complete the perimeters. In case you have a look at it, it will appear like 1 / 4 of a spherical. Variations of those embody a half spherical trim.
Beak is the skin nook trim that could be used with a Bead or quarter spherical.
V-CAP: (additionally referred to as apron trim) V-shaped trim tile used on the entrance fringe of a countertop. The tile’s high floor is gently curved upward on the entrance edge to stop water from working onto the ground.
Border Tiles Border tiles are primarily ornamental area tiles which are used to outline a transition. These tiles sometimes are differentiated from the sector tiles by their shapes, measurement, design, shade, or texture.
Some border tiles double as trim tiles, for instance, v-cap on a counter could be a completely different shade or comprise a design or hand-painted element that can act as a border. Many producers additionally make ceramic variations of conventional wooden moldings to be used as borders, together with profiles for base, crown, and chair rails to match the wall tile and supply a extra ornamental technique to end the set up. Listellos are an ornamental border tile, primarily used on partitions that may present a border for area tiles. These are sometimes used to supply a visible break for a big area design or when the route of the tile modifications.
Ornamental Tiles and Medallions Ornamental tiles are sometimes insets of a hand-painted or embossed design tile that that can be utilized to accent a area of tiles.
Medallions or inlays are sometimes pre-assembled designs created with stone or tile which are ornamental focal factors for a tiled space.
Shade Variation Tile is a fired product produced from clay and different pure supplies. Variation in shade and shade from one tile to the subsequent is an inherent attribute of most tiles. With ceramic and porcelain tiles more and more manufactured to appear like pure stone, shade variation can typically be a welcome characteristic of a tile design, giving the set up a novel, pure and rustic look.
This module will current the forms of shade variation and shade variation rankings.
Sorts of Shade Variation
Situational Variation Your showroom’s lighting will most definitely be fairly completely different from the lighting in your buyer’s dwelling. Even the elevated presence of pure mild within the room could make a giant distinction within the look of the colour or shading of tile.
Provide to carry the samples she is contemplating to her dwelling, if you carry out the measure, in an effort to view the tile within the mild of room and with different objects from her décor.
Variation from Pattern to Precise Tile One of these shade variation is troublesome to foretell. If you’re promoting a product that has average to excessive shade variation, use a show vignette, or a show on the showroom ground of an analogous kind of tile, to make sure your buyer is conscious of the diploma of variation.
Intentional Variation Shade variation might also be created by they producer to supply a random, distinctive wanting set up. Make sure prospects deciding on merchandise with a excessive diploma of shade variation have seen pictures of an put in structure and have checked out a number of tiles from the identical manufacturing run to make sure the random and diversified look is what they need. If this isn’t attainable, ask the client to ascertain the assorted shades in a wall of bricks to create a psychological picture of shade variation.
Water Absorption Water absorption is a crucial attribute of ceramic tiles. The quantity of water the physique of the tile will take in displays the tile’s porosity, density, and power.
This module will current a normal check technique for figuring out the proportion of water absorbed by the physique of a ceramic tile and clarify why this score is necessary for buyer planning out of doors tile initiatives.
Water Absorption Testing The water absorption check is used for each glazed and unglazed tiles. There are a selection strategies used to carry out this check, the ASTM C-373 technique (American Society for Testing and Supplies) is among the most typical and is described on this module. This testing technique makes use of quite a few particular person tiles from the identical lot, weighs them, soaks them with water, after which weighs the tile once more. The proportion of weight distinction between the 2 circumstances is the water absorption score.
The quantity of water a tile will take in is managed by the uncooked materials used within the physique and the manufacturing course of. It’s the tile physique that absorbs the water not the glazed floor.
Tile Absorption Charges There are 4 classes for classifying tile absorption charges. Non-vitreous tile is essentially the most porous and has a excessive water absorption price, whereas Impervious tile has a really dense physique construction and a considerably decrease water absorption price.
Usually, indoor areas, even these uncovered to moisture, corresponding to loos and kitchens, will use glazed tile and the floor glaze is impenetrable to water. If unglazed tile have been for use in high-moisture, inside utility, the water absorption price would should be thought-about. The absorption score can also be a very good indicator for the stain resistance for unglazed ceramic tile because the decrease the water absorption score, the larger the stain resistance.
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