- Distinction between an APA bibliography and a reference web page
- What about annotated bibliographies?
- Understanding APA reference web page format
- Q: What font am I supposed to make use of for the reference web page or bibliography?
- Q: What are the margins imagined to be for the reference web page or bibliography?
- APA reference web page instance
- APA reference web page formatting: Alphabetizing by surname
- The “nothing precedes one thing” rule
- Disregard areas and punctuation marks
- Ordering a number of works by the identical writer
- Ordering works with the identical writer and identical date
- Similar writer and identical yr of publication
- Similar writer and identical yr of publication, with extra particular dates
- Ordering authors with the identical surname however totally different initials
- Ordering works with no listed writer, or an nameless writer
- What if the work is definitely authored by “Nameless”?
- What if there isn’t a listed writer and it’s positively not a bunch writer?
- APA Formatting Information
- APA Formatting
- Quotation Examples
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Revealed October 16, 2013. Up to date September 7, 2021.
You’re reading: what is a works cited page called in apa
In APA, the “Works Cited” web page is known as a “Reference Listing” or “Reference Web page”. “Bibliography” additionally could also be used interchangeably, although there are some variations between the 2.
In case you are on the level in your article or analysis paper the place you’re looking up APA bibliography format, then congratulations! Meaning you’re virtually completed.
On this information, you’ll learn to efficiently end a paper by making a correctly formatted APA bibliography. Extra particularly, you’ll learn to create a reference web page. The rules offered right here come from the seventh version of the APA’s Publication Handbook.
A word on APA reference web page fashion: On this information, “bibliography” and “references” could also be used interchangeably, although there are some variations between the 2. A very powerful factor is to make use of the label “References” when writing your paper since APA fashion recommends together with a reference web page.
Distinction between an APA bibliography and a reference web page
The distinction between a bibliography and a reference web page is a matter of scope. A bibliography normally contains all supplies and sources that have been used to put in writing the paper. A reference web page, then again, solely contains entries for works that have been particularly cited within the textual content of the paper.
What about annotated bibliographies?
There are some circumstances through which a professor or journal may request an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is mainly a reference web page that features your feedback and insights on every supply.
An annotated bibliography is usually a doc all by itself, or a part of an even bigger doc. Meaning creating an annotated bibliography by itself may very well be an task, or you might have to incorporate one as a part of your analysis paper, journal submission, or different mission.
If you happen to do want so as to add an APA annotated bibliography, it goes after the reference web page by itself web page, contained in the appendices.
Understanding APA reference web page format
A correctly formatted APA reference web page begins on a brand new web page, after the tip of the textual content. It comes earlier than any figures, tables, maps, or appendices. It’s double-spaced and options what’s referred to as a dangling indent, the place the primary line of every reference isn’t indented, and the second line of every reference is indented 0.5 inches. The reference web page can also be labeled with a daring, center-justified, and capitalized “References.”
To summarize, the reference web page needs to be:
- Positioned by itself web page, after the textual content however earlier than any tables, figures, or appendices.
- In the identical font as the remainder of the paper.
- Formatted with hanging indents (every line after the primary line of each entry indented 0.5 inches).
- Labeled with a daring, center-justified, and capitalized “References.”
Notice: You should use the paragraph perform of your phrase processing program to use the hanging indent.
Q: What font am I supposed to make use of for the reference web page or bibliography?
The APA reference web page / bibliography needs to be in the identical font as the remainder of your paper. Nonetheless, APA Fashion doesn’t really name for one particular font. In response to Part 2.19 of the Publication Handbook, the primary requirement is to decide on a font that’s readable and accessible to all customers. Among the really helpful font choices for APA Fashion embrace:
- Sans serif fonts: Calibri (11pt), Arial (11pt), or Lucida (10pt).
- Serif fonts: Occasions New Roman (12pt), Georgia (11pt), or Regular/Laptop Fashionable (10pt).
Q: What are the margins imagined to be for the reference web page or bibliography?
Other than the 0.5 inch hanging indent on the second line of every reference entry, you do not want to switch the margins of the reference web page or bibliography. These needs to be the identical as the remainder of your paper, which in response to APA is 1-inch margins on all sides of the web page. That is the default margin setting for many pc phrase processors, so that you in all probability received’t have to alter something.
Subsequent, let’s check out an actual instance of a correctly formatted APA reference web page to see how these items come collectively.
APA reference web page instance
Creating an APA reference web page is definitely rather a lot simpler than making a bibliography with different fashion guides. The truth is, so long as you might be conscious of the formatting guidelines, the reference web page virtually writes itself as you go.
A correctly formatted APA reference web page/bibliography wants to stick to the next formatting tips:
- By itself web page, after the textual content however earlier than any annotations.
- Double-spaced the entire method by way of (together with particular person references).
- Formatted with hanging indents for every reference entry.
- Correctly labeled with a daring, center-justified, capitalized “References.”
- Reference entries ordered alphabetically by writer.
Now, let’s see how this appears to be like when all of it comes collectively.
APA reference web page formatting: Alphabetizing by surname
All works included within the reference web page needs to be ordered alphabetically, utilizing the primary phrase of the reference entry. Normally, that is the writer’s surname. Nonetheless, there are occasions when a reference entry may start with a unique ingredient.
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Creating an alphabetized reference web page or bibliography may seem to be a easy job. However whenever you begin coping with a number of authors and related final names, it could possibly really get slightly difficult. Luckily, there are a couple of fundamental guidelines that may maintain you on observe.
The “nothing precedes one thing” rule
When the surnames of two or extra authors start with the identical letters, the “nothing precedes one thing” rule is tips on how to determine it out. Right here is an instance of the way it works.
Think about your reference web page contains the authors Berg, M.S. and Bergman, H.D. The primary 4 letters of every writer are the identical. The fifth letters are M and H respectively. Since H comes earlier than M within the alphabet, you may assume that Bergman, H.D. needs to be listed first.
APA Fashion requires that “nothing precede one thing,” which signifies that Berg will seem earlier than Bergman. Equally, a James would robotically seem earlier than a Jameson, and a Michaels earlier than a Michaelson.
Disregard areas and punctuation marks
If a surname has a hyphen, apostrophe, or different punctuation mark, it may be ignored for alphabetization functions. Equally, something that seems within parentheses or brackets needs to be disregarded.
Ordering a number of works by the identical writer
It’s not unusual for a analysis paper to reference a number of books by the identical writer. In case you have multiple reference entry by the identical individual, then the entries needs to be listed chronologically by yr of publication.
If a reference entry has no yr of publication out there, then it ought to precede any entries that do have a date. Right here’s an instance of a correctly alphabetized order for a number of entries from the identical writer:
Guzman, M.B. (n.d.).
Guzman, M.B. (2016).
Guzman, M.B. (2017).
Guzman, M.B. (2019).
Guzman, M.B. (in press).
“In press” papers don’t but have a yr of publication related to them. All “in press” sources are listed final, just like the one proven above.
Ordering works with the identical writer and identical date
If the identical writer has a number of entries with the identical yr of publication, it’s essential to differentiate them with lowercase letters. In any other case, the in-text citations in your paper will correspond to multiple reference web page entry.
Similar writer and identical yr of publication
Right here’s a have a look at tips on how to use lowercase letters to distinguish between entries with the identical writer and identical yr of publication:
Guzman, M.B. (2020a).
Guzman, M.B. (2020b).
Guzman, M.B. (2020c).
These lowercase letters are assigned to make the in-text citations extra particular. Nonetheless, it doesn’t change the truth that their yr of publication is identical. If no month or day is out there for any of the sources, then they need to be ordered alphabetically utilizing the title of the work.
When alphabetizing by title, ignore the phrases “A,” “An,”,and “The” in the event that they’re the primary phrase of the title.
Similar writer and identical yr of publication, with extra particular dates
If extra particular dates are offered, similar to a month or day, then it turns into doable to order these entries chronologically.
Guzman, M.B. (2020a).
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Guzman, M.B. (2020b, April 2).
Guzman, M.B. (2020c, October 15).
Ordering authors with the identical surname however totally different initials
Authors who share the identical surname however have totally different first or center names could be alphabetized by their first preliminary or second preliminary.
Guzman, M.B. (2020c, October 15).
Guzman, R.L. (2015).
Ordering works with no listed writer, or an nameless writer
In case you have reference entries with no listed writer, the very first thing to double-check is whether or not or not there was a bunch writer as an alternative. Group authors could be companies, job forces, nonprofit organizations, authorities businesses, and so on.
If there isn’t a particular person writer listed, then have one other have a look at the supply. Whether it is revealed on a authorities company web site, as an example, there’s a good likelihood that the company was the writer of the work, and needs to be listed as such within the reference entry. You may learn extra about tips on how to deal with group authors in Part 9.11 of the Publication Handbook.
What if the work is definitely authored by “Nameless”?
If the work you’re referencing really has the phrase “Nameless” listed because the writer, then you may checklist it because the writer and alphabetize it as if it have been an actual identify. However that is provided that the work is definitely signed “Nameless.”
What if there isn’t a listed writer and it’s positively not a bunch writer?
In case you have confirmed that there isn’t a particular person or group writer for the work, then you should utilize the work’s title because the writer ingredient within the reference entry. In any case the place you’re utilizing the work’s title to alphabetize, you need to skip the phrases “A,” “An,” and “The.”
Revealed October 28, 2020.
APA Formatting Information
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Utilization
- In-text Citations
- A number of Authors
- Web page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Web page
- Pattern Paper
- Title Web page
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Information
- Ebook Chapter
- Journal Article
- Journal Article
- Newspaper Article
- Web site
- Web site (no writer)
- View all APA Examples
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Submit Suggestions When ought to I embrace a DOI or URL in an APA reference checklist?
The next guidelines will allow you to determine when to make use of DOIs and when to make use of URLs in references:
- Use a DOI wherever out there, be it a print model or on-line model.
- For a print publication that doesn’t have a DOI, don’t add a DOI or URL (even when a URL is out there).
- For a web-based publication, if each a DOI and URL are given, embrace solely the DOI.
- For on-line publications that solely have a URL (and no DOI), observe the under suggestions:
- Add a URL within the reference checklist entry for publications from web sites (aside from databases). Double verify that the URL will work for readers.
- For publications from most educational analysis databases, that are simply accessible, don’t embrace a URL or database data within the reference. On this case, the reference would be the identical because the print model.
- For publications from databases that publish restricted/proprietary work that will solely be out there in that database, embrace the database identify and the URL. If the URL would require a login, embrace the URL for the database residence web page or login web page as an alternative of the URL for the work.
- If a URL is not going to work for the reader or is not accessible, observe the steerage for citing works with no supply.
How do I format my references checklist?
To format your APA references checklist, observe these suggestions:
- Start the references on a brand new web page. This web page needs to be positioned on the finish of the paper.
- All sides of the paper ought to have a 1-inch margin.
- Set the heading as “References” in daring textual content and heart it.
- Organize the reference entries alphabetically in response to the primary merchandise throughout the entries (normally the writer surname or title).
- Add a dangling indent of 0.5 inches (i.e., indent any line after the primary line of a reference checklist entry).
See above for a visible instance of a reference web page and extra examples.
A number of entries with the identical writer(s) are organized by publication yr. Entries with no dates first, then in chronological order. If the yr revealed can also be the identical, a letter is added to the yr and the entries are organized alphabetically (after association by yr).
- Robin, M. T. (n.d.)
- Robin, M. T. (1987)
- Robin, M. T. (1989a)
- Robin, M. T. (1989b)
Single-author supply and multi-author supply that share one writer. One-author entries are listed first even when the multi-author entries have been revealed earlier.
- Dave, S. P., Jr. (2006)
- Dave, S. P., Jr., & Glyn, T. L. (2005)
For references with a number of authors which have the identical first writer however totally different subsequent authors, alphabetize the entries by the final identify of the second writer (or third if the primary two authors are the identical).
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