what is the difference between installment sales and like-kind exchanges?

what is the difference between installment sales and like-kind exchanges?

Vendor Financing within the Context of a 1031 Change

It’s not uncommon for a taxpayer to finance the client in entire or partly. Such transactions might or might not contain the vendor’s intent to finish a 1031 change. The construction of the vendor’s financing can take the type of a word and mortgage/deed of belief from the client or beneath Articles of Settlement for Deed. The precise type shouldn’t influence the vendor’s choices in structuring an change as a part of the transaction.

Below an installment sale utilizing a word and mortgage/deed of belief, the query steadily arises whether or not a taxpayer can construction an change when the balloon cost turns into due, relatively than on the time the events enter into the installment sale. Comparable questions are raised with Articles of Settlement for Deed – can the change be finished on the time of the balloon cost when the client is receiving the deed? It can’t, since, for tax and authorized functions, the purpose of switch of possession happens when the events enter into the word and mortgage or an Articles of Settlement for Deed relatively than when the balloon cost is made or when the deed is issued.

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Taxpayer Receiving Money and a Notice

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It is quite common for the taxpayer/vendor to obtain cash down from the client and to hold a word for the extra sum due. At instances, this association is entered into as a result of the events want to shut, however the purchaser’s typical financing is taking extra time than anticipated. On this occasion, the word ought to be made payable to the certified middleman (the change firm). To the extent that the client can procure the financing from the institutional lender earlier than the taxpayer closes on the substitute property, the word might merely be substituted for money from the client’s mortgage.

It’s extra probably that the taxpayer’s 180 day change interval will fall previous to the receipt of funds into the change account. On this case, an answer is for the vendor to “purchase” his personal word from his change account with recent money. Primarily, the taxpayer advances private funds into the substitute property whereas not receiving the equal amount of money from the client at the moment. These funds will be money that the taxpayer already has accessible, or it may be from a mortgage that the taxpayer takes out to purchase the word. The profit to the word buyout is that the longer term principal funds acquired by the taxpayer over time will likely be absolutely tax deferred.

Within the instance above, care ought to be taken as to when the word (or installment settlement) ought to be turned over to the taxpayer. There’s a pure tendency to cross the money and word concurrently. In spite of everything, the consumer is placing into the change account the very same worth that he’s taking out. Nonetheless, as a result of the laws prohibit the taxpayer from the “proper to obtain cash or different property pursuant to the safety or warranty association,” it’s in all probability higher to obtain the money into the account someday previous to the acquisition of the substitute property, whereas assigning the word to the vendor after all of the substitute property has been acquired. Some certified intermediaries could have a type that they’ll signal acknowledging the substitution of money for the word with a promise to distribute the word upon the closing of the change account.


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There are numerous eventualities through which an installment sale can influence tax deferral. In some instances deferral will be attained by the taxpayer’s substitution of money into an change account for an installment word or a sale beneath articles of settlement for deed. In our subsequent put up, we look at extra complicated cases involving installment gross sales and 1031 exchanges.

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