what is the difference between temperature and heat

what is the difference between temperature and heat

Temperature and warmth have an effect on our lives every day. From deciding what to put on to cooking to sophisticated air-con techniques to international warming, we will see the real-world purposes of temperature and warmth. Whereas each phrases are used interchangeably, they’ve two completely different meanings. In AP® Chemistry, they’re a part of the thermochemistry subject. In easy phrases, warmth is the vitality transferred from a warmer physique to a cooler one, whereas the temperature is the diploma of hotness or coldness of a substance. This dialogue will cowl the variations between temperature and warmth, which incorporates the technical definitions of each phrases, methods to measure temperature and warmth, generally used models of measurement, and the way they’re associated to one another. This AP® Chemistry assessment additionally covers some frequent calculations associated to temperature and warmth.

Temperature

Temperature, in AP® Chemistry, is outlined because the measure of the movement of particles in a substance. It’s the common kinetic vitality of random movement of electrons, atoms, and molecules that transfer freely throughout the substance. Temperature is an intensive variable, that means its measurement doesn’t depend upon the quantity of fabric in an object.

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Measuring Temperature

Temperature is measured with quite a lot of devices. The most typical is with a mercury-filled thermometer. Mercury quantity adjustments with a change in temperature. Different temperature-measuring gadgets, primarily in manufacturing vegetation, are thermocouples, infrared radiators, and resistive temperature gadgets.

Notation and Items

In AP® Chemistry, temperature is without doubt one of the seven SI base models. Temperature makes use of the image T and the unit Kelvin (textual content{Okay}), which is absolutely the temperature scale. This scale is known as after Lord Kelvin, who outlined this absolute scale. In Kelvin, 0 textual content{ Okay} corresponds to the temperature at which movement ceases to exist. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are two different frequent temperature measurements. The Celsius scale is the most typical temperature scale used worldwide, whereas Fahrenheit is usually generally known as the American unit for temperature. For comparability, the desk under reveals the freezing and boiling factors of water in several scales.

Desk 1. Freezing and Boiling Factors of Water in Completely different Temperature Scale

Unit Freezing Level of Water Boiling Level of Water Kelvin (textual content{Okay}) 273 373 Celsius (^circ textual content{C}) 0 100 Fahrenheit (^circ textual content{F}) 32 212

The next equations are helpful in reviewing AP® Chemistry. They convert a measurement from one temperature scale to a different.

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{F} } proper) }=dfrac { 9 }{ 5 } { T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }+32

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{C} } proper) }=dfrac { 5 }{ 9 } { T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{F} proper) }-32

{ T }_{ left( textual content{Okay} proper) }=273+{ T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }

Temperature
Temperature. Picture Supply: HyperPhysics

Warmth

In contrast to temperature, warmth is the switch of vitality from a warmer physique to a colder physique. It’s typically known as thermal vitality. All chemical reactions contain a change in warmth. There are three sorts of warmth circulation in substances: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the switch of warmth in solids. Convection is the switch of warmth in gases and liquids. Lastly, radiation is the switch of warmth by house. Radiation is principally liable for the hotness we really feel from the solar.

Measuring Warmth

The most typical method of measuring warmth is with a calorimeter. The phrase calorimeter comes from the Latin phrase caloric, that means warmth. There are several types of calorimeters, and every kind has a particular operate and objective. Response calorimeters are used to measure warmth associated to all chemical reactions. The bomb calorimeter, or constant-volume calorimeter, measures the warmth of gas combustion. Different sorts of calorimeters are the adiabatic calorimeter, fixed strain calorimeter, and Calvet-type calorimeter. In AP® Chemistry, warmth is assigned an indication conference (constructive or unfavorable). The warmth absorbed by the system will likely be constructive (textual content{warmth} > 0), whereas warmth launched by the system will likely be unfavorable (textual content{warmth} < 0). When warmth is added to or faraway from a substance, it’ll change its section (latent warmth) or enhance its temperature (wise warmth).

Notation and Items

In AP® Chemistry calculations, warmth is symbolized by Q. The textual content{Joule (J)} is the SI unit for each warmth and vitality and is the same as dfrac{1 textual content{ kg} cdot textual content{m}^2}{s^2}.

The English unit for warmth is a textual content{British Thermal Unit (BTU)}. 1 textual content{ BTU} is the vitality wanted to boost the temperature of 1 textual content{ pound} of water by 1^circ textual content{F}. One other frequent unit of warmth is a textual content{calorie (cal)}, which is the quantity of warmth required to boost the temperature of 1 textual content{ gram} of water by1^circ textual content{C}. textual content{BTU} and textual content{cal} are extra generally utilized in engineering purposes than textual content{J}. The conversion knowledge under relates the three frequent models of warmth.

1055 textual content{ J} = 1 textual content{ BTU}

4.186 textual content{ J} = 1 textual content{ cal}

1 textual content{ BTU} = 252 textual content{ cal}

In layman’s phrases, warmth is the power to do work as a result of it’s a kind of vitality. However, temperature can be utilized to point the diploma of warmth in a substance. The desk under reveals different variations between temperature and warmth.

Desk 2. Temperature vs. Warmth Abstract

Temperature Warmth Definition Measure of the kinetic movement of drugs Vitality transferred from a warmer to a colder physique Image in AP® Chemistry T Q SI Unit Kelvin (textual content{Okay}) Joule (textual content{J}) Different Items Celsius (^circ textual content{C}) and Fahrenheit (^circ textual content{F}) British Thermal Unit (textual content{BTU}) and calorie (textual content{cal}) Particles Signifies the pace of particles in a substance Represents the overall vitality of all particles in a substance

Now, I’ll talk about how warmth and temperature are associated to one another, by the legal guidelines of thermodynamics. The Zeroth Legislation of Thermodynamics, additionally known as the thermal equilibrium, connects temperature with warmth circulation. It states that if two techniques are in thermal equilibrium with a 3rd system, they’re each in thermal equilibrium with each other. As illustrated under, now we have Object A, which has a temperature of 89^circtext{C}; Object B, which has a temperature of 10^circtext{C}; and Object C, which has a temperature of fifty^circtext{C}. If the three objects are involved with each other, they are going to at a while attain thermal equilibrium.

Warmth flows from the warmer physique to the colder physique. On this case, the thermal equilibrium temperature is 64^circtext{C}. Because of this Objects B and C each will take up warmth, and Object A will launch warmth. After reaching the thermal equilibrium, warmth switch will cease. Due to this fact, Object A is in equilibrium with Object B, and Object B is in equilibrium with object C, and by the Zeroth Legislation, Object A can also be in equilibrium with Object C.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Zeroth Legislation of Thermodynamics. Picture Supply:HyperPhysics

Smart warmth is the warmth added to a substance, leading to a rise in temperature. Warmth and temperature are associated by the precise warmth capability, or the warmth required by one unit mass to boost its temperature by one diploma unit.

Q = mc_p (T_2-T_1)

…the place Q = wise warmth, c_p = particular warmth capability, T_1 = preliminary temperature, and T_2 = ultimate temperature.

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Now that now we have mentioned the fundamental ideas on the variations of temperature and warmth, we will now undergo some follow issues on this AP® Chemistry assessment.

Calculations in AP® Chemistry

Pattern Drawback 1:

Convert the next temperature scale to the required scale.

a. 27^{circ}textual content{C} = ___ ^{circ}textual content{F}

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{F} } proper) }=dfrac { 9 }{ 5 } { T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }+32

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{F} } proper) }=dfrac { 9 }{ 5 } { (27) }+32

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{F} } proper) }=48.6+32

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{F} } proper) }=80.6^{circ}textual content{F}

b. 398 textual content{ Okay} = ___ ^{circ}textual content{C}

{ T }_{ left( textual content{Okay} proper) }=273+{ T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }

398=273+{ T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }

398-273={ T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }

{ T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{C} proper) }=125^{circ}textual content{C}

c. 324^{circ}textual content{F} = ___ ^{circ}textual content{C}

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{C} } proper) }=dfrac { 5 }{ 9 } left( { T }_{ left( ^{circ}textual content{F} proper) }-32 proper)

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{C} } proper) }=dfrac { 5 }{ 9 }(324-32)

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{C} } proper) }=dfrac { 5 }{ 9 }(292)

{ T }_{ left( { ^{circ}textual content{C} } proper) }=162.22^{circ}textual content{C}

Pattern Drawback 2:

Suppose you must elevate the temperature of 52 textual content{ g} of water from 34^circ textual content{C} to 59^circ textual content{C}. How a lot warmth do you must add? The precise warmth capability of water is 4.186 textual content{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}.

Given knowledge:

m = 52 textual content{ g}

T_1 = 34^circ textual content{C}

T_2 =59^circ textual content{C}

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c_p= 4.186text{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}

Utilizing the given components:

Q = mc_p (T_2-T_1)

Q = (52 textual content{ g}) (4.186text{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}) (59^circ textual content{C} – 34^circ textual content{C})

Q = (52) (4.186) (25) textual content{ J}

Q = 5{,}441.8 textual content{ J}

Pattern Drawback 3:

Two metals are positioned in a glass of water. Gold has a mass of 14 textual content{ g} and an preliminary temperature of fifty^circ textual content{C}. Aluminum has a mass of 30 textual content{ g} and an preliminary temperature of 17^circ textual content{C}. The glass of water has a mass of 100 textual content{ g} and a temperature of 40^circ textual content{C}. If the three substances had been to succeed in thermal equilibrium, what’s the ultimate temperature of the system? The precise heats of gold, aluminum, and water are 0.129text{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}, 0.90text{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}, and 4.184text{ J} cdot textual content{g}^{-1} cdot ^circ textual content{C}^{-1}, respectively.

In thermal equilibrium, warmth switch is 0.

Q_{gold} + Q_{aluminium} + Q_{water} = 0

m_{gold}c_{p, gold}(T_2-T_{1, gold})+ m_{aluminium}c_{p,aluminium}(T_2-T_{1,aluminium}) + m_{water}c_{p,water}(T_2-T_{1,water})= 0

Substituting the given knowledge:

(14text{ g})(0.129text{ J}cdottext{g}^{-1})(T_2 – 50^circtext{C})+(30 textual content{ g}) (0.90text{ J} cdottext{g}^{-1})(T_2 – 17^circ textual content{C})+(100 textual content{ g})(4.184text{ J}cdottext{g}^{-1})(T_2 – 40^circtext{C})=0

Performing the operation and simplifying:

1.806T_2 – 90.3 + 27T_2 – 459 + 418.4T_2 – 16736 = 0

1.806T_2+ 27T_2+ 418.4T_2= 90.3 + 459 + 16736

447.206T_2= 17285.3

T_2= 38.65^circ textual content{C}

Let’s put all the pieces into follow. Do that AP® Chemistry follow query:

Quantity of Heat and Temperature AP® Chemistry Practice Question

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