what is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton

what is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton

The bones of the human skeleton are divided into two teams. The appendicular skeleton consists of all of the bones that kind the higher and decrease limbs, and the shoulder and pelvic girdles. The axial skeleton consists of all of the bones alongside the physique’s lengthy axis. Let’s work our manner down this axis to find out about these constructions and the bones that kind them.

The axial skeleton consists of the bones that kind the cranium, laryngeal skeleton, vertebral column, and thoracic cage. The bones of the appendicular skeleton (the limbs and girdles) “append” to the axial skeleton.

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1. Cranium Bones Shield the Mind and Kind an Entrance to the Physique.

Cranial bones and Facial skeleton

The cranium consists of the cranial bones and the facial skeleton. The cranial bones compose the highest and again of the cranium and enclose the mind. The facial skeleton, as its title suggests, makes up the face of the cranium.

Facial Skeleton

The 14 bones of the facial skeleton kind the entrances to the respiratory and digestive tracts. The facial skeleton is shaped by the mandible, maxillae (r,l), zygomatics (r,l), and the bones that give form to the nasal cavity: lacrimals (r,l), nasals (r,l), vomer, palatines (r,l), and the nasal conchae (r,l).

Cranial Bones

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The eight cranial bones assist and defend the mind: occipital bone, parietal bone (r,l), temporal bone (r,l), frontal bone, sphenoid, and ethmoid.

Cranium Sutures

In fetuses and new child infants, cranial bones are related by versatile fibrous sutures, together with massive areas of fibrous membranes known as fontanelles. These areas enable the cranium to enlarge to accommodate the rising mind. The sphenoidal, mastoid, and posterior fontanelles shut after two months, whereas the anterior fontanelle could exist for as much as two years. As fontanelles shut, sutures develop. Cranium sutures are motionless joints the place cranial bones are related with dense fibrous tissue.

The 4 main cranial sutures are:

  • lambdoid suture (between the occipital and parietal bones)
  • coronal suture (between the frontal and parietal bones)
  • sagittal suture (between the 2 parietal bones)
  • squamous sutures (between the temporal and parietal bones)

2. The Hyoid Bone, Laryngeal Skeleton, and Bones of the Interior Ear Are Generally Categorized with Cranium Bones

Bones of the Interior Ear

Contained in the petrous a part of the temporal bone are the three smallest bones of the physique: the malleus, incus, and stapes. These three bones articulate with one another and switch vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inside ear.

Laryngeal Skeleton

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The laryngeal skeleton, also called the larynx or voice field, consists of 9 cartilages. It’s positioned between the trachea and the basis of the tongue. The hyoid bone gives an anchor level. The actions of the laryngeal skeleton each open and shut the glottis and regulate the diploma of rigidity of the vocal folds, which-when air is pressured by them-produce vocal sounds.

3. The Bones of the Vertebral Column: The Vertebrae, Sacrum, and Coccyx

The vertebral column is a versatile column shaped by a collection of 24 vertebrae, plus the sacrum and coccyx. Generally known as the backbone, the vertebral column extends from the bottom of the cranium to the pelvis. The spinal wire passes from the foramen magnum of the cranium by the vertebral canal inside the vertebral column. The vertebral column is grouped into 5 areas: the cervical backbone (C01-C07), the thoracic backbone (T01- T-12), the lumbar backbone (L01-L05), the sacral backbone, and the coccygeal backbone.

4. The Bones of the Thoracic Cage Shield Inner Organs

The thoracic cage, shaped by the ribs and sternum, protects inside organs and provides attachment to muscular tissues concerned in respiration and higher limb motion. The sternum consists of the manubrium, physique of the sternum, and xiphoid course of. Ribs 1-7 are known as true ribs as a result of they articulate on to the sternum, and ribs 8-12 are often known as false ribs.

Obtain Axial Skeleton Lab Handbook

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