Following the Industrial Revolution, many European cities confronted an unprecedented rise within the price of inhabitants progress, intensified by the migration of individuals from rural areas to city areas looking for higher alternatives.
Though cities grew to become extra inviting, issues reminiscent of air pollution and the expansion of casual settlements additionally intensified. In the meantime, the countryside supplied proximity to nature and an abundance of pure sources, however it additionally suffered from isolation and a lower in employment alternatives.
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In mild of those points, within the late nineteenth century, the idea of backyard cities was created. This mannequin of city planning was characterised by progressive beliefs to resolve the issues of rural flight and the ensuing disorderly progress of city areas. The backyard metropolis idea was primarily based on the creation of a sequence of small cities that might mix the benefits of each environments.
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Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928), who had been finding out cities earlier than the institution of urbanism as a tutorial subject, was probably the most influential individuals behind the backyard metropolis motion. Howard printed To-morrow a Peaceable Path to Actual Reform (1898), a ebook that was reprinted 4 years later as Backyard Cities of Tomorrow (1902), for which he grew to become extensively recognized.
Along with his publications, Howard additionally organized the Backyard Metropolis Affiliation in 1899 in England to advertise the concepts of social justice, financial effectivity, beautification, well being, and well-being within the context of metropolis planning.
The Three Magnets Diagram, significantly emblematic by way of summarizing the concepts of backyard cities, is featured within the first pages of each variations of Backyard Cities of Tomorrow. Every illustrated magnet represents a selected atmosphere: the city, the nation, and the town-country. The primary two magnets listing the positives and negatives of city life and nation life, whereas the third magnet combines the benefits of each.
This third magnet incorporates such promising qualities of the backyard metropolis that it shifts the title to the middle of the diagram, versus the primary two, suggesting a powerful attraction between the query The individuals: the place will they go? and the numerous benefits provided by this mannequin of city planning.
“In the beginning of the 20 th century, two nice new innovations took kind earlier than our eyes: the aeroplane and the Backyard Metropolis, each harbingers of a brand new age: the primary gave man wings and the second promised him a greater dwelling-place when he got here all the way down to earth.” – Lewis Mumford (1946)
The idealized imaginative and prescient of the backyard metropolis contained particular utopian components like small communities deliberate on a concentric sample that might accommodate housing, trade, and agriculture, surrounded by greenbelts that might restrict their progress. Many diagrams and maps illustrate clusters of a number of backyard cities, which was an vital side to make sure the effectiveness of the backyard cities.
Cities like Letchworth, Welwyn, and Stockfeld in England, had been constructed utilizing these concepts, however the idea was influential in different international locations too, even exterior Europe, with variations and reinterpretations based on totally different geographical and historic contexts.
This idea continues to be ceaselessly revisited to today – albeit significantly totally different from the unique concept – to suggest city planning options that try, no less than in principle, larger integration between city areas and inexperienced areas.
However even contemplating this theoretical and conceptual hole between Howard’s concepts and the newer city planning tasks, the latter actually highlights the significance of finding out and understanding these ideas to today.
- HOWARD, Ebenezer. Backyard Cities of Tomorrow. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Ltd., 1902.
- MUMFORD, Lewis. The Backyard Metropolis Thought and Trendy Planning. In: HOWARD, Ebenezer. Backyard Cities of Tomorrow. London: Faber and Faber, 1946.
- ROSS, Rebecca; MOGILEVICH, Mariana; CAMPKIN, Ben. Ebenezer Howard’s three magnets. The Guardian, 05 December 2014.